Tuberculosis (TB) Symptoms, Causes, Diet and Treatment

Posted on

Tuberculosis- In today’s information, what is TB disease, what are the symptoms and tests of TB, we will know complete information about what to eat in case of TB and how to treat tuberculosis. Tuberculosis disease is contagious but it does not spread easily if you stay with an active Tuberculosis patient for a very long time. Then only you are likely to get it.

The bacteria of this are not on any surface nor spread by sharing food by shaking hands. TV spreads from person to person through the air When a person suffering from TV coughs or sneezes, the TB bacteria spread from person to person by coming in contact with the air.

What is TB (Tuberculosis)

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is also known as tuberculosis and tuberculosis. TB bacteria are transmitted through sputum, cough and sputum and through direct contact with the patient. This bacterium affects the human lungs.

The bacteria also affect the body’s alimentary canal or liver, brain. People who are susceptible to malnutrition, exhaustion, cold and flu get sick quickly. This follicle occurs quickly in people living in dark and damp habitats in densely populated dirty areas. In tuberculosis disease, there is mild fever, cough and blood in the sputum.

The bacteria of this disease spread in the environment through sputum and phlegm and reach from person to person through air. In children, this disease can be avoided by taking BCG vaccine.

What are the types of TB

There are two types of TB – Pulmonary and Extra Pulmonary.

1.Pulmonary TB

TB of the lungs is called pulmonary TB and accounts for 80% of all TB cases.

2.Extrapulmonary TB

TB that affects any other part of the body such as the brain, lymph nodes, bones, joints, kidneys, larynx, intestines, eyes, etc. is called extra-pulmonary TB.

Only patients with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis are contagious. Patients can suffer from both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB simultaneously.

Type of TB

According to the doctor, there are usually 2 types of TB

  1. latent tuberculosis.
  2. Active Tuberculosis

1.latent TB

In this, the bacteria of TB passively remain in the body. They usually do not show any symptoms and are not contagious. But they can be active. Latent TB occurs when a person has TB bacteria in their body but the bacteria are present in very small numbers. Patients with latest TB do not feel sick. Usually the tests done by them like X-ray and then the test is normal negative.

There are generally two types of tests for latent TB – the TB skin test and the IGRA blood test.

2.Active TB

Active TB shows symptoms of TB and a person with active Tuberculosis can easily infect others. Active TB is a condition whereby the body’s immune system becomes unable to fight or defend against the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cause the person’s lungs become infected which is the most common symptom of TB

Cases of active TB are more common in people who are malnourished or who smoke heavily.

How is TB disease caused?

  • Although TB ​​is a contagious disease, not all forms of TB are contagious.
  • When a pulmonary microbiologically confirmed TB patient coughs or sneezes, the TB bacteria are spread as droplets in the air. People nearby can breathe in these bacteria and become infected.
  • A contagious case of TB, if left untreated, can infect 10-15 people in a year.
    Extrapulmonary TB is not contagious.
  • TB is not spread by shaking hands, using public toilets, sharing food and utensils, blood transfusions and casual contact.

Is TB a hereditary disease?

TB is not a hereditary disease

What is the difference between TB infection and TB disease?

In most people who breathe in TB bacteria, the body’s immune system is able to fight off the TB bacteria and stop them from multiplying. This is called TB infection. People who are infected with TB do not feel sick, have no symptoms and cannot spread TB.

If the immune system of an infected person cannot stop the bacteria from multiplying, the bacteria eventually cause symptoms of active TB known as TB disease. Only 10% of all people with TB infection may develop TB disease.

People with conditions such as HIV, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and those treated with immunosuppressant drugs (anti-cancers, corticosteroids, etc.) have a higher risk of developing Tuberculosis disease once infected.

What are the risk factors for TB?

Prolonged contact with a sputum positive pulmonary TB patient

  • Crowd
  • smoking
  • HIV infection
  • malnutrition
  • Diabetes
  • Patients on immunosuppressive drugs (anti-cancer, corticosteroids, etc.)
  • certain lung diseases such as silicosis

Which age group is most commonly affected by TB?

TB any age but is most commonly seen in individuals between the ages of 15-45 which is an economically productive age group.
The disease occurs in both sexes. However, men are more affected than women.

What are the symptoms of TB?

Symptoms of TB are specific to the affected site, although some symptoms are the same for all types of TB.

  • Coughing for more than two consecutive weeks Night sweating Chest pain Loss of appetite Persistent loss of weight Coughing and bleeding with sputum
  • Symptoms of pulmonary TB are
  • Persistent cough for 2 weeks or more
  • Pain in chest
  • shortness of breath
  • blood in sputum
  • Symptoms of extra pulmonary TB depend on the site/organ involved.
  • Brain TB – Meningitis
  • TB-enlarged lymph nodes
  • Bone TB – destruction of bones and joints
  • Abdominal TB – Intestinal blockage
  • Common symptoms of TB
  • weight loss
  • Tiredness
  • temperature rise in the evening (fever)
  • night sweats

How is TB diagnosed?

Tuberculosis is diagnosed by demonstrating TB bacteria in a clinical sample taken from the patient. While other investigations may strongly suggest tuberculosis as a diagnosis, they cannot confirm it.

Pulmonary TB is diagnosed primarily through sputum smear microscopy. This test examines the patient’s sputum under a microscope for the presence of TB bacteria. In extrapulmonary TB it is usually difficult to display TB bacteria, so the diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and the organ affected by special tests. is done on the basis. For example, TB of lymph nodes is diagnosed by a special test called FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology).

In addition, CBNAT machines are being used, which is a molecular test for the diagnosis of TB. In addition to disease, it also mentions about drug resistance to rifampicin, a potent anti-TB drug.

What should a TB patient eat?

TB patients should pay special attention to their diet for a quick recovery. Cereals and millets Cereals include rice, wheat and maize and millet includes jowar, TB patients should use whole grain foods as much as possible Should include pulses, tur, moong, urad and soybean. It contains high amount of protein which is beneficial for TB patients.

A person suffering from NutsTB should include peanuts, coconut, cashew, almonds, walnuts, dates etc. in his diet. Vegetables should include leafy vegetables, roots and tubers (such as potatoes), other vegetables such as gourds, brinjals, tomatoes, beans, peas and cabbage, onions, etc.

These can be taken liberally in the diet and seasonal vegetables as much as possible. Fruits should include banana, mango, papaya, guava, citrus fruits (lemon oranges), melon, apple and pear, berries. Milk and dairy products TB patients must include milk, curd and cheese in their diet. Eggs Fish Meat A person suffering from TB must consume eggs, fish and meat.

Are there any side effects of anti-TB treatment?

Very few people develop side effects of anti-TB drugs.

Most of these side effects are minor and include vomiting, nausea, loss of appetite, joint pain, orange/reddish urine, and skin rash. These can be easily managed with simple medications and without stopping anti-TB drugs.

In very rare cases, serious side effects such as deafness and jaundice may develop, which may require the temporary discontinuation of certain anti-TB drugs.

Treatment

TB is one of the 10 diseases worldwide that can cause death to a person. But the treatment of TB is completely possible if the medicine prescribed by the doctor is taken as directed. Its treatment in government hospital is free. The most important thing is that TV treatment is continued until the TV is completely cured. Usually its medicine lasts for 6 to 9 months.

Is there any vaccine for TB?

The BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccine is currently the only vaccine available against TB.

Although BCG appears to reduce the risk of severe childhood forms of TB, it is not effective in preventing TB in adults and children.

How are TB and HIV related?

HIV is the strongest risk factor for tuberculosis in adults because it weakens the immune system.

One is 20-40 times more likely to develop TB disease once infected with TB bacilli than an HIV positive person.

How can TB be prevented?
In the absence of an effective vaccine, the only way to prevent TB is early detection and treatment of infectious TB patients.
If cough persists for more than two weeks, then go to your doctor immediately and get it checked up.
A person suffering from Tuberculosis should keep a handkerchief over his mouth while coughing, sneezing or talking.
A person suffering from TB should not leave the medicine until the TB is completely cured.
Can TB be cured in HIV co-infected patients?

TB in HIV co-infected patients is curable with the same drugs that are used to treat HIV negative TB patients.

is done for.

However, HIV/TB co-infected patients require other drugs such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) to prevent other opportunistic infections.

What is RNTCP?

rNTCP or Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program is a tuberculosis control initiative of the Government of India.
It is based on DOTS- the global TB control strategy recommended by WHO.
The program was started in 1997 and expanded to the entire country in 2006.
The name of the program has now been changed to National Tuberculosis Elimination Program (NTEP).

How is TB treated under NTEP?

Treatment under NTEP is available free of cost in all government and identified private and non-government health facilities, called treatment centres. There are about 4 lakh such centers in the country.

Once the diagnosis of TB is confirmed, the patient is treated with a standardized regimen based on the previous history of TB treatment.

The diet is given in 2 phases – Intensive Phase (IP) and Continuity Phase (CP)

‘New TB patients’ i.e. patients who have never been previously treated for TB (both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) are treated with the following regimen for 6 months:

Cap rifampicin, tab isoniazid, tab pyrazinamide and tab ethambutol ie IP for 2 months thereafter

Cap rifampicin, tab isoniazid and tab. Ethambutol ie CP for 4 months.

All the medicines in FDC (Fixed Drug Combination) are given on daily basis. The total pill burden is reduced to make it more convenient for the patients.

Who can become a treatment provider?

The only criteria for becoming a treatment provider is to be acceptable to the patient and accountable to the health system.

Identified treatment providers are given adequate training on drug administration, identification of adverse reactions, patient follow-up and recovery in case of treatment interruption.

Treatment providers include health system employees (doctors, nurses, MPWs, ANMs, pharmacists etc.), NGOs, private doctors, community volunteers – family members, teachers, religious leaders, Anganwadi workers, forums, ASHA, shop owners, Includes cured TB patients. e.t.c.

How is it assessed that the patient is responding to treatment?

In the case of patients with pulmonary Tuberculosis, the response to treatment is assessed by follow-up sputum examination at regular intervals during treatment. Sputum examination is also done at the end of the treatment to declare the patient well.

Response in extra-pulmonary TB patients is assessed through clinical improvement and follow-up investigations such as X-rays, CT scans, etc. depending on the site affected.

How is it ensured that a TB patient initiated for treatment completes the treatment? Once a patient is diagnosed as suffering from TB, the verification of the address is done by the health worker and the patient and family members Home visits are made to counsel and educate on the disease and the importance of regular treatment.

The contact details of the patient and a responsible family member/neighbor/friend/relative are recorded on the patient’s treatment card in case the patient’s treatment is interrupted.

If a patient misses a dose, the DOT provider visits the patient at home and encourages him to return for treatment. If the DOT provider fails to retrieve the patient, the supervisory staff (i.e. Senior TB Supervisor, Medical Officer etc.) are informed to take necessary action.

In addition, ICT interventions like 99 Dots are being used by the program for compliance monitoring

What happens if a patient develops an adverse reaction to medications?

Adverse reactions are uncommon and are usually mild in nature such as nausea, vomiting, gastritis, itching, etc.

Treatment providers are trained to identify adverse drug reactions and take appropriate action according to protocol.
Since the duration of treatment is long, what if the patient has to change his/her place of residence?

To ensure continuity of treatment under NTEP, there is a provision of ‘transfer out’ if a patient has to shift his residence to an area which is outside the TB unit in which he is registered. It could be another district or even another state anywhere in the country.

Treatment continues at the treatment center near the patient’s new residence.

  • important information
  • Not everyone gets side effects
  • If you get side effects, consult and inform your doctor
  • Early action prevents side effects
  • Do not stop your medicines or restart them on your own.
  • Do not share your medicines or advice treatment with others.
  • Do not smoke or consume alcohol as it may increase the side effects
  • List of TB Side Effects
  • nausea vomiting
  • Take herbal medicine
  • Do not take all medicines together
  • Take medicine with little water or milk at bedtime
  • Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol
  • Stay Hydrated (Drink Enough Water)
  • eat nutritious food
  • do not take any medicine on your own
  • Do not stop or reduce the dose of anti-TB drugs on your own
  • Get your healing supporter, health car without any delay
  • Inform and consult worker or doctor
  • loss of appetite
  • May indicate liver damage
  • burning/numbness in hands and feet
  • Inform and consult your treatment supporter, health worker or doctor
  • Vitamin B6 can be stopped on doctor’s advice
  • flu-like symptoms
  • is usually mild and subsides on its own
  • Flu can be caused by infection. Inform and consult your treatment supporter, health worker or doctor
  • itching and rashes
  • apply moisturizing cream
  • Do not expose the rash to sunlight
  • Rashes usually subside with time
  • If rash develops in the mouth or nose or covers a very large area of ​​the body or is associated with fever, notify and consult your medical practitioner, healthcare worker or physician immediately
  • low vision
  • Notify and consult your medical practitioner, health worker or doctor immediately
  • Usually resolves on stopping ethambutol
  • If ethambutol is stopped, it will need to be replaced with another drug for complete cure of TB
  • joint/muscle/stoma pain
  • usually harmless
  • can be treated with painkillers
  • Notify and consult your medical practitioner, health worker or doctor immediately
  • swelling of the face/neck
  • Inform and consult your treatment supporter, health worker or doctor
  • fatigue / lethargy
  • Inform and consult your treatment supporter, health worker or doctor
  • Requires evaluation and can be treated with nutritious food and appropriate medications
  • Convulsions / Suicidal Thoughts
Notify and consult your medical practitioner, health worker or doctor immediately.

So in today’s information we have to know about the symptoms, causes, and some important questions of tuberculosis. If you have any query related to this information, then you can ask us.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.